For this honorable occasion, please allow me share some of our experience in developing ICT in Indonesia, especially about the progress and the plan.
Computer and Internet present on our lives are unavoidable these days. In fact, our lives have been stimulated by the present of such technology. In Indonesia, ICT for education is first introduced at the end of 1990. Even though, we still consider ourselves were being late to utilize the technology, especially if compared to other country in South East Asia. Our human resources faced even much more basic problem such us English proficiency which widely used in computer technology, not to mentioned some adequate skill and knowledge on basic computer. This is our hardest homework to begin implementing ICT in education in Indonesia.
Department of National Education realizes that to overcome such problem requires a lot of effort and investment. However, the small step should be taken to start the long journey.
Having realized this, the Directorate of Vocational and Technical Education and Training (Dikmenjur) as one of the office within Ministry of National Education directly related to the use of technology in education, took the initiative to meet up the challenge. The directorate comes up with several strategic initiatives that will bring ICT awareness among the education stakeholder. Among the initiatives is the setting up of a mailing list as a medium for communication for all teachers, principal, students and officials. All the members are encouraged to have individual email address for their identity. Through this initiative, teacher and students must learn such technology in order to allow them to receive information given by ministry’s official as well as sharing experience by other fellow educator. Today, the mailing list has about 3600 members since October 5, 1999.
The mailing list experience generate more demand on the need to a have better education and more structure schedule. In cooperation with the leading technology institute in the country, ITB, the directorate signs an agreement to educate potential teacher to learn more on ICT. Number of teachers has been sent to the institute to pursue some degree in ICT field. As for the selection, the directorate make announcement only through its mailing list and select them among the active members. The program started in the month of August and September 2000. Later on, more scheduled training was set up in each Technical Education and Development Center that serves as teacher training center to provide training on Technical Support, Help Desk and Web Design.
Later, several active members in the mailing list and graduates from the training program with highly skill and knowledge in computer were assigned as consultant to formulate a strategy to widely use of ICT in education. Their first agenda is how to accelerate the use of internet among vocational high school (SMK) across the country as main solution for wide spread geography.
The Dikmenjur together with their ICT Team (formerly Team of Internet Acceleration V1.2) had done several innovation of advance ICT in some field of education. Some of them are as follows:
In the field of human resource development, we have:
- opened a program of Information Technology on Vocational High School (SMK-TI), which has been implementing on the year of 2000. These programs were done at SMK that has human resources potential and IT resources sufficient. The students who are willing to participant this IT course can joint this after their regular school time. This course is intended with a 200 hours program and at the last program; the students will meet the examination or test of competences by ITB Bandung.
- developed a network of school information (JIS) in several cities or regencies start on 2001, this JIS constitute the club of K-12 teachers who are generally having a potential ability in hardware, software and network field. In general JIS has own mailing list as a mean of tools for several experiences and discussion about ICT. For this moment, JIS sprout up in several cities, some if they became on embryo program of WAN Kota.
- implemented 4th Diploma (D4-TI) and 2nd Strata/Master Degree of information technology (S2-TI) crash program. This program were opened on 2002-2004 and followed by SMK’s teachers, which were selected and potential in the field of ICT. D4-TI are implemented on the basic good cooperation with ITS (Technology Institute of November 10th) in Surabaya, where as S2-TI are implemented on the basic good cooperation with the ITB (Technology Institute of Bandung) in Bandung.
- implemented 4th Diploma of Computer Network Technical (D4-TKJ) and 1st Diploma of Animation (D1-Animasi), these programs were opened on 2003-2006 and followed by SMK’s teachers. These are implemented on the basic good cooperation with the ITB.
On the field of structure and infrastructure resources, we have:
- developed computer network and internet (Jarnet). This program was started on 2001. This is for helping SMK who has not yet had local area network (LAN) and internet connection. With this help, this SMK will have LAN, which will pick up in a 1 unit of PC Server and 10 unit of PC Client.
- expanded Wide Area Network in the City (WAN Kota). This program was expanded on 2003 in several cities that had an active JIS. The WAN Kota is probably to build computer network wireless between schools through radio frequency medium 2.4 GHz (WiFi). One of SMK being as central of WAN Kota, where as Web, Mail, Database, and E-learning Server with Base Transceiver Station (BTS) took place. WAN Kota gives intranet and internet service to some schools, which become their clients. For the moment there is a WAN Kota that has 36 clients are consist of Junior High School, Senior High School, Vocational High School, University, VEDC and Mayor Office. [www.jis-wan.or.id]
- built an ICT Center. This program has been being expanded since on 2004 in several cities that is having active WAN Kota. ICT Center own, 1-computer laboratory facilities, one multimedia conference room and one digital library. Computer laboratory and multimedia conference room each has a 1 unit of PC Server, 20 unit of PC Client, 1 unit of LCD Projector, and 1 unit of Handy camera. Where as digital library is facilitate with one unit of PC Server, 10 unit of PC Client. ICT Center is plan as infrastructure and structure of ICT training for kindergarten (TK/RA), elementary school (SD), junior high school (SMP), senior high school (SMA), vocational high school (SMK), extraordinary school (SLB), Islamic elementary school (MI), Islamic junior high school (MTs), Islamic senior high school (MA), and Islamic boarding school teachers (Pesantren) in this city. As a central, ICT Center also serves three SMKs (WAN Kota client, exist in 5 km form central) in the program of distance learning with using of televideo conference system.
- prepared a Mobile Training Unit of ICT (MTU-ICT). This program has been being expanded since on 2004 in regency that has isolated district and already had active JIS. MTU-ICT constitute computer laboratory on the van with facility there are 1 unit of Notebook Server, 20 unit of Notebook Client, 1 unit of LCD Projector, and 1 unit of Handy camera. On the van, also complete with one unit of CDMA telephone to dial up internet connection and one unit of Access Point (WiFi) 2.4 GHz as hot spot. As usual, ICT Center also planned as infrastructure and structure of ICT training for TK/RA, SD, SMP, SMA, SMK, SLB, MI, MTs, MA, and Pesantren teachers at isolated district area.
- built an Education Radio (Radio Edukasi). This program has been being expanded since on 2004 in several cities that have already owned active JIS. Education Radio used FM frequency with the power of minimum length broadcast for about 10 km. The radio listener’s segment are teachers and students of TK to SMA/SMK, which is why the agenda of their programs is arranged for the need of training field that are taught at school. This radio concept is education and entertainment (edutainment). The Education Radio can also be integrated with infrastructure and web portal WAN Kota as a communication media for the listener, especially for the city which has WAN Kota.
- built a Relay Station and Mini Studio of Education TV (TV Edukasi). This developing program was started in 2005 in several cities. It used UHF or VHF frequencies with the power of maximum length broadcast for about 15 km. The TV watcher’s segment is students of Kindergarten up to College. This TV concept is education (80%) and entertainment (20%).
- developed Cyber City. This program was started on 2006 in several cities that have already owned active WAN (Wide Area Network) of Education, such as in Jakarta, Bandung (West Java), Yogyakarta, Solo (Central Java), and Malang (East Java) which are on Java Island. It has been developing through management synergy of Education Radio Broadcast, Education TV Broadcast, Knowledge, Network, and Web. In the future we will connect all Cyber Cities in a wireless intranet which is supported by WiMax technology. This program is inspired from “Backpack.Net” program in Singapore.
On the field of curriculum, we have already arranged and published:
- IT Tandem Program on SMK (SMK-TI): Technical Support (TS), Help Desk (HD) and Web Design (WD) course on 1999.
- SMK’s Curriculum 1999 Edition. The competence is Commercial Information Technology under Electronic Program.
- SMK’s Curriculum 2004 Edition. The competencies are Network Computer Technical, Software Engineering, and Multimedia under ICT Program.
- Supplement of SMK’s Curriculum 2004 Edition: Animation (under Appearance Art Program) and Radio-Television Broadcasting Technology (under ICT Program) on the 2005.
On the field of educational system, we have already developed:
- Web of New Student Selection and Enrollment (PSB Online). This developing web was begun on 2002. First priority of this web is candidate student selection at school based on national examination grade. Here a candidate can choose several schools with priority scale. Afterward, this program will automatically try out the grade relevant with the other candidate grade. If the grade relevant loose competition at the first school chooses, so automatically this program will try out that grade at the second school choice. Selection result will be announced real-time trough web, so parents and candidate can look at the last position where they are received (select), this PSB Online web prove that pass is secure, fair, transparency, honest, and democracy. [www.psb-online.or.id]
- Web portal of School Mapping. This developing web was begun on 2004. This web first priority is Education Data and Information Center in Indonesia. That data on this web import from 416 School Mapping Team that spread all regency/city in Indonesia. School Mapping Team is coordinated by expert vocational high school teacher and 20 students as operator. [schomap.dikmenjur.net]
On the public service sector, we involve teacher and student of vocational high school as province coordinator, regency/city coordinator, supervisor, and district operator on activity:
- Entry data of election result (Situng Pemilu) on parliament election (April 5th, 2004), first round president and vice president election (July 5th, 2004) and second round president and vice president election (September 20th, 2004) in Indonesia (cooperate with IT-KPU Indonesia).
- Entry data of school mapping result in all Indonesia (cooperate with Department of National Education).
We realized that never say stop on the dictionary of innovation, more over in innovation on the educational area with ICT base. However, we are optimized and proud, because our ICT Team has already created the second generation that average in all provinces. Because of that we are always on commitment to develop nation mind by ICT innovation.
On the field of structure and infrastructure resources, we will develop:
- SMK’s Entrepreneur Network (SMK-EN) on the 2007.
- SMK’s Incorporated (SMK-Inc) on the 2008.
On the field of educational system, we will develop: Web portal of job exchange for SMK graduated (BKK Online) on 2007.
On the public service sector, we will back involve teacher and student of vocational high school as province coordinator, regency/city coordinator, supervisor, and district operator on Entry data of election result for governor of province on 2007.
Partnership on the developing education based ICT is a part of our important journey, that is the reason why we want to be a partnership with several hardware vendor, software vendor, internet provider, telecommunication operator, cellular operator, and another party that have commitment on the ICT development in Indonesia. The one of our best partner is Microsoft Indonesia.
On our report, Microsoft Indonesia has already carried as our job, they are:
- Training supports for the teacher K-12 (Partner in Learning Grants Program)
- PC supports (Fresh Starts for Donated Computers)
- Software supports (School Agreement Subscription Licensing Program)
- Validation and consultation arrange on subjects of (1) Computer skill and Information Processing, and (2) Software Engineering at SMK’s Curriculum 2004 Edition.
Even though concrete step that we will do with Microsoft Indonesia begin 2005, our Microsoft Partner in Learning program are:
- Licensing of Windows XP and Office 2003 for school PCs/Notebooks with orderly School Agreement Subscription Licensing Program on 2004.
- The ICT Training for the teachers with orderly Microsoft Partner in Learning grant on 2005.
- The Microsoft IT Academy for ICT Center with orderly Microsoft Partner in Learning grant on 2006.
By this Microsoft Partner in Learning (PIL) program, we hope every teacher will be able to:
- operate PC, manage files and work in computer’s network.
- make Lesson Plan with Microsoft Word.
- make List and Graphic of Mark with Microsoft Excel.
- search learning material and education information on internet with Internet Explorer.
- scan picture with Microsoft Office Document Scanning
- scan text with Microsoft Office Document Imaging (OCR).
- montage and present Lesson Topic with Microsoft PowerPoint
- make, write, send, receive, edit, and reply e-mail according netiquette with Web Mail application.
- make interactive teaching-learning with Messenger application.
Below is the Table of Teacher and Student in Indonesia year 2004/2005:
Level of Education
For the moment, our ultimate goals from ICT teacher training trough Peer Coaching Program for 4 years ahead are as follow:
- In 2007: 10% teachers can work with computer.
- In 2008: 25% teachers can work with computer, 10% teachers can make a learning module based on multimedia.
- In 2009: 45% teachers can work with computer, 15% teachers can make a learning module based on multimedia, 5% teachers can make a learning media based on web in internet.
- In 2010: 65% teachers can work with computer, 20% teachers can make a learning module based on multimedia, 10% teachers can make a learning media based on web in internet, and 5% teachers can manage for distance learning (class) system based on ICT (Multimedia, Web, Radio, and Television).
Along with the increasing number of developing ability of the teachers working with computer and internet, it will be forecasted the number of demanding PC/Notebook and internet bandwidth for the teachers in Indonesia will be increasing significantly. Beside that, we hope that market of PC, Notebook, Operating System, Application Program, and Peripheral can be a positive respons with the existing and the price relatively cheap and can be bought by everybody. We are hope internet service providers can cover whole archipelago in Indonesia.
Subsidizing is not the only solution to create the dreaming for one teacher – one computer. Because of that, we hope that there is an increasing salary for teacher proportionally, so teacher are able to buy 1 unit PC or Notebook, pay internet, buy books, and subscribe magazine or journal which will be helpful for their profession and carrier.
Beside that, we still find the fact that is less conducive in developing education based on ICT, as…
- The budget of education is only up to 10%, not 20% as mentioned at the National Budget.
- Several islands do not have an electricity installation yet and telephone line that are important for ICT implementation.
- The developing education based on ICT is still centralized in Senior High School and Vocational High School, not spread even in kindergarten, elementary school, junior high school, extraordinary school, Islamic elementary school, Islamic junior high school, Islamic senior high school, and Islamic boarding school.
Those are what we have done. We have been doing and we will do developing in Indonesia. We are aware that developing education based on ICT should be followed by the goodwill to confess basic rights upon Intellectual Wealth, that is not because there is a pressure from other one, but there is goodwill from us to follow the Republic of Indonesia Regulation Number 19 Year 2002 about the Intellectual Ownership.
We confess that the education of institution belong to those who start doing illegal multiplication of software in Indonesia, so that from the education institution we should stop them seriously, explicitly and systematically. We hope partnership who has existed in good condition will be followed and being a goodness in the field of education. Thank you.
Teacher of Public Vocational High School 4 Malang
Member of ICT Dikmenjur Team
A. Jl. Tanimbar 22 Malang 65117 Indonesia
(Singapore, 12nd November, 2004)
(Sawangan, Depok, 24th July 2006 – Updated)